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JPB2 ja. The site would be divided into subnetworks The extension of the original default address masks to allow any desired mask parameter assumes compliance with the original class masks. That is, a Class A network must have a mask of at least A Class B network could, for example, have a mask of The extension of the address mask allows networks to be further subdivided into sub networks. For example, the Class B network This would create subnets like If we recall that a mask of For example, consider a Class B network In this network I want to have up to hosts per subnetwork.
Since Class B uses the first 16 bits to identify the network this leaves 6 bits to represent the subnetwork. I can have up to 64 different values in the subnet field and up to values in the host field. The address mask looks like this:. There are three fields that are defined in this mask. Because we are applying this to a Class B network the first 16 bits represent the network. The next 6 bits represent the subnetwork, and the last 10 bits represent the host.
Any number of bits can be used to identify the subnetwork. Some other examples in Class B include:. The exact same scheme applies to Class A but only the first eight bits are included in the network part. This allows many more combinations for subnetting. Some examples in Class A include:. When considering the subnetting in a network it is necessary to convert the dotted-decimal octet strings for the addresses and the mask back into binary to compare the fields and evaluate the results.
When the subnet mask is applied to an IP address the result is the definition of some number of bits for use in identifying the subnetwork on which the device resides.
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For any given masking, the subnet bit value of all zeros and the value of all ones is not used to specify a device. In reality, there are 8 combinations for a 3-bit pattern. Because of the restriction on using all zeros or all ones, the resulting number of legal subnets that can be uniquely identified with three bits is 6. It should be noted that BSD 4. In current practice zeros are never used. Here is an outline of the requirements for special-purpose subnet numbers.
HOST means the remaining bits in the address not included in the network or subnetwork portion. Consider the XYZ Corporation which has been assigned the network number The world sees this company as Within the XYZ Corporation, however, the division of the network is very different. They could use Variable Length Subnet Masks to divide their world into a multi-level hierarchy.
XYZ Corp has an office in many states, 23 field offices in all. The designers of the XYZ Corp network decide to divide their network into 32 subnets using a mask of In binary, the mask bits are:. These six bits can differentiate between up to 64 different subnetworks. This is the same logic as would be applied to any subnet mask. Now, however, it is realized that at each site there is a sales division, an accounting department, a marketing group, and a technical support group.
The designers want to further subdivide each site with a router. This would require further division of the address field. No problem.
The main, central routers are subnetted The field office routers, however, are subnetted with Think about this in the binary representation. Notice that the field router defines an additional three bits in the mask. Of these eight possible values, the and value are not available for use in identifying a specific subnet.
These are going to be used to route between the sales, accounting, marketing, and tech support groups at each field site. Perhaps the assignment is like this:. Here are the four divisions:.
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When viewed in the binary sense this scheme identifies FOUR fields. The routers understand how to divide the address based on the subnet mask. The world, in our example, sees The company sees Each field office sees The router masks the address and looks up the result in its table to determine how to forward the frame. Consider these three stations shown with their dotted decimal and binary representations:. When looking at the dotted-decimal notation there is nothing immediately obtuse. To understand any subnet masking it is necessary to break the bit address into the fields defined by the variable length masks.
First, mask the addresses with the You can see that all three address mask back to Now lets just consider the last 16 bits of each address since we know the first 16 are the same in all three cases. The next router uses that mask The masking now continues as follows:. Do you see that all three station are identified with as the bit pattern included in the masked portion? This means that the next router in line the one masked as The last router in this hierarchy is using the mask Here is the masking:. It is critical that you understand this last step.
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Do you see that the bits included by the mask have been included in the result? Do you see the three additional bits used as the mask went from Now we can assess the validity of the addresses. The fields break as defined by the mask bits. The remaining three bits may be broken out as follows this is the table above simply repeated and clarified :. What we now see is that the address This is an address which is not defined by the design of the network. The actual troubleshooting maxim is quite simple: Follow the frame from source to destination.
Each station should be forwarding the frame to a correct destination; router to router; until the final destination is reached. To know what the expected forwarding will be from router to router it is necessary to understand the underlying subnet masking being used by the routers and by the nodes.
The meaning of the dotted-decimal IP address can only be ascertained by applying the mask using binary arithmetic to determine which bits are used to represent the network, the subnet or subnets , and the host. Every device on the network maintains a routing table in memory. This table may be very simplistic, as would be the case with a low-end PC workstation, or very complex, as would be the case with a high-end router.
The table consists of pairs of IP addresses. For example, a routing table may indicate that all frames destined for network The immediate destination is always directly reachable; in this case we must be on network The routing table provides a lookup for a device to tell it how to send frames. There are two interesting exception cases. In the one case, the originating station concludes that the ultimate destination is, itself, directly reachable.
In that case the frame will be forwarded directly to the destination IP address in the frame. It is not necessary to forward it to a router; the sender realizes that it is on the same subnetwork as the destination. So, a device uses its routing table to determine the destination for a frame. In every case, when a station be it an end-node or a router wants to send a frame to some particular IP destination it must first figure out what data link destination address will be used in the frame. This is referred to as the process of Address Resolution.
There are two methods used for address resolution in IP networks. In , the deployment of IPng Version 6 is limited and it will surely be a number of months before the implications of ICMP resolution become significant to most networks. Consequently, in this document only the ARP method of address resolution will be examined in detail.
An ARP frame has four significant fields relative to our discussion. These are:. Some slight reflection will lead you to correctly conclude that all four of these fields are not filled in by the sender of an ARP frame. If I want to know the data link address being used by In the ARP Reply, The association between IP address and data link address is recorded in a temporary memory table referred to as the ARP Cache. The ARP Cache is dynamic. Entries age out after just a few seconds if they are unused.
Consequently, during a typical conversation a station ARPUs for the destination once at the beginning and then the entry remains in the ARP Cache for the life of the connection assuming the connection is active. The address mask serves as the guide for interpreting the IP address. The Default Gateway is the destination specified in the routing table to use when no other destination can be ascertained. The idea of a default destination has no corresponding behavior in the ARP Cache.